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Thutmose III = Shishak

Thutmose III

Thutmose III was the sixth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He was co-regent with his step mother Hatshepsut (considered the 5th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty) for the first 22 years of his reign. He was the son of Thutmose II, the 4th pharaoh of the New Kingdom. Thutmose III was not old enough to rule when Thutmose II died and so Hatshepsut, his principal wife (queen), had a co-regency with Thutmose III which lasted until her death.

Thutmose III is considered to be one of the Greatest Pharaohs of Egypt expanding the the Egyptian Empire further than any other Pharaoh. He conducted 17 campaigns, conquering as far north as Niya in Syria and as far south as the 4th cataract of the Nile in Nubia.

Thutmose III attacked Caanan in his 23rd year (The Seige of Megiddo) after Hatshepsut’s death. He plundered Jerusalem in the 5th year of King Rehoboam and took many of the treasures in Solomons temple back to Egypt. He was the Pharaoh named Shishak recorded in the Bible. The seige of Megiddo lasted 7-8 months, after which Thutmose III gained control of Northern Caanan. Thutmose III recorded his victories at Karnak.

The Syrian princes were obliged to pay tribute and their sons were taken as hostages to Egypt.

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His mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache above the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. The mummies of Ahmose I, Amenhotep I,Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Rameses I, Seti I, Rameses II, Rameses IX were also found in the cache as well as some mummies of the 21st dynasty.

Thutmose III ruled for a period of 54 years, the first 22 years being co-regent with Hatshepsut (the queen of Sheeba who visited Solomon). His first born son Amenemhat predeceased Thutmose III. He had a 2 year co-regency with Amenhotep II at the end of his reign. Amenhotep II (the 7th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty) was the son of Hatsehpsut. Thutmose III was buried in the valley of the Kings when he died.

Biblical Account

Shishak first appears in the Biblical narrative as a patron of Jeroboam, one of Solomon’s sons who fled from the presence of his father:

“Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam. But Jeroboam arose and fled into Egypt, to Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon.”1_Kings 11:40

His second appearance would be in a raid against King Rehoboam of the Southern Kingdom of Judah:

“In the fifth year of King Rehoboam, because they had been unfaithful to the LORD, Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem with 1,200 chariots and 60,000 horsemen. And the people were without number who came with him from Egypt—Libyans, Sukkiim, and Ethiopians. And he took the fortified cities of Judah and came as far as Jerusalem. Then Shemaiah the prophet came to Rehoboam and to the princes of Judah, who had gathered at Jerusalem because of Shishak, and said to them, “Thus says the LORD, ‘You abandoned me, so I have abandoned you to the hand of Shishak.'” Then the princes of Israel and the king humbled themselves and said, “The LORD is righteous.” When the LORD saw that they humbled themselves, the word of the LORD came to Shemaiah: “They have humbled themselves. I will not destroy them, but I will grant them some deliverance, and my wrath shall not be poured out on Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak. Nevertheless, they shall be servants to him, that they may know my service and the service of the kingdoms of the countries. So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. He took away the treasures of the house of the LORD and the treasures of the king’s house. He took away everything. He also took away the shields of gold that Solomon had made.”2_Chronicles 12:2-9

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The relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon.  There was no first intermediate period.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.